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# Thermal

The examples in this section present the thermal capabilities of LS-DYNA. They are provided by Dr. Art Shapiro. Art is working since decades on topics reated to DYNA3D, LS-DYNA and TOPAZ. He is the key developer for the thermal capabilites of LS-DYNA. Art is one of the co-founders of LSTC. You may access the examples separately by using the menu on the left.
 This problem demonstrates using LS-DYNA to solve for the unconstrained expansion of a block due to heating. The model consists of one 8 node brick element at an initial temperature of 10. The brick material is given a volumetric thermal generation rate. Explicit time integration is used for the structural calculations and implicit time integration is used for the thermal calculations. Implicit time integration is unconditionally stable and, therefore, a larger thermal time step can be taken. This problem demonstrates using LS-DYNA to solve a 2-dimensional steady state heat transfer problem with temperature boundary conditions. Shell formulation 12 for plane geometry is used.
 This problem demonstrates using LS_DYNA to solve a 3-dimensional transient heat transfer problem with temperature boundary conditions. Fully implicit time integration method is used for this nonlinear thermal problem. This problem models a hot block sliding along a colder block. This is a way to model welding. The hot block is set at a fixed temperature to model a heat source. Explicit time integration is used for the structural calculations and implicit time integration is used for the thermal calculations. Implicit time integration is much more stable and, therefore, a larger thermal time step can be taken. A thermal-mechanical slide surface between the blocks is defined using *CONTACT_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE_THERMAL command.
 This problem models the metal forming process known as upsetting. Only a quarter of the problem is modeled because of symmetry. The initial temperature is 20. There is no heat transfer to the environment. The temperature change of the body is from conversion of mechanical work into heat through plastic deformation. A thermal time step is used which is 1000 times larger than the mechanical time step, since heat transfer takes place on a longer time scale than the mechanical deformation.