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A brief description of the example.
 Fuse Plate in Tension Exhibits Hourglassing

Additional Sections:

Example: Fuse Plate in Tension Exhibits Hourglassing

Filename: section_shell.hourglassing.k

A fuse plate is used to connect a cut in a wide flange beam. The beam is loaded
at an end, putting the fuse plate in tension. In this loading condition, the
fuse plate exhibits a great deal of hourglassing.

The fuse plate and beam are constructed with shell elements and a piecewise
linear plasticity material model with failure. The fuse plate is connected to
the beam using spot welds (*CONSTRAINED_SPOTWELD). One end of the beam is
fixed with SPC's, while the other end has several nodal point loads
(*B OUNDARY_SPC_NODE, *LOAD_NODE_POINT). Multiple point loads are used to
better distribute the input loads.

One look at the figures explains why it's called "hour glassing". To fix the
hourglassing problem the fuse plate could be re-meshed or a fully integrated
shell element formulation could be used.